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תמונות פנורמיות של בתי כנסת עתיקים המקור

Toledo synagogue

בית הכנסת העתיק בטולדו צילם:Olivier Lévy

West wall of the Synagogue of Córdoba

פנים בית הכנסת העתיק בקורדובה - הקיר המערבי לכיוון ירושלים - צילם:Hameryko

השימוש במונח "בית הכנסת העתיק ביותר בעולם" דורש הגדרה זהירה. בתי כנסת עתיקים מאוד רבים התגלו בחפירות ארכיאולוגיות. כמה בתי כנסת נהרסו ונבנו מחדש מספר פעמים באותו אתר, כמו כן, בעוד האתר או הקהילה הם מזמן עבר, לעיתים, מבנה בית הכנסת עשוי להיות מודרני. אחרים מבני בית הכנסת הקיימים , אבל היו בשימוש במשך מאות רבות כמו כנסיות, מסגדים, או למטרות אחרות. אך היו גם בתי כנסת עתיקים מאוד בשימוש רציף בתי כנסת במשך מאות שנים.

בתי הכנסת העתיקים ביותר[]

כללי[]

Old new synagogue in Prague - inside

פנים בית הכנסת העתיק בפראג מהמאה ה-13 צילם:Peco

  • בית הכנסת העתיק ביותר שנבנה בבית אבן והוקדשו למטרה זו אותרו במצרים המרכזית והתחתונה ותוארכה למאה ה-3 לפני הספירה.[1]
  • מבנה בית הכנסת העתיק שאותר הוא בDelos Synagogue- יתכן שהיה של השומרונים . הוא תוארך לשנים 150-120 לפנה"ס

[2] [3]

אפריקה[]

מצרים[]

כתובות חרוטות על אבנים נמצאו במצרים התחתונה והמרכזית. הן תוארכו למאה ה-3 לפני הספירה - אולי המימצא העתיק בעולם על קיום בית כנסת (ראו לעיל)

שריד קדום של בית כנסת הנו כתובת יונית מן המחצית השניה של המאה ה-3 לפנה"ס מסכידיה שבקרבת אלכסנדריה שבמצרים, וזה תוכנה: "היהודים הקדישו בית תפילה זה למלך תלמי ולמלכה ברניקה... ולילדיהם".

על ידי הקדשת בית הכנסת למלך העמידה קהילת סכידיה את בית הכנסת תחת חסותו של המלך.
נשתמרה גם כתובת מבית כנסת אחר שבמצרים התחתית, שממנה משתמע, שלבית הכנסת הנידון ניתנת הזכות לשמש כמקום מקלט. זכות זו הייתה בידי מקדשים מסוימים, ומסתבר, שגם בית כנסת יכול היה לזכות בזכות זאת.

שרידים של בתי כנסת טרם התגלו במצרים. יש עדות לקיומם במקורות כתובים. פילון האלכסנדרוני כתב כי באלכסנדריה עצמו היו בתי כנסת בכל אחד מרובעי העיר.

בתי הכנסת היו, כנראה, בעל מרחב רב. בית הכנסת שנמצא ב:Arsino Crocodilopolis גודלו נאמר בשנים וחצי הקר. הבוא כלל גם "גן קדוש" בשטח של הקר נוסף.

המקור וכן ניתן למצוא בקישור כתובות על בתי כנסת

תוניסיה[]

South Africa[]

  • The Gardens Shul, established 1841, is the oldest congregation in South Africa. Its 1863 building, which is still standing, may be the oldest synagogue building in the country.

Asia[]

India[]

קובץ:Jewish synagouge kochi india.jpg

The Paradesi Synagogue in Kochi, India

  • In Kochi, the South Indian State of Kerala, Paradesi Synagogue is believed to be built in 1568. It is the oldest Jewish synagogue in India.

ארץ ישראל[]

בתי כנסת קדומים בארץ ישראל

קובץ:Ruins of the Ancient Synagogue at Bar'am.jpg

Ruins of the ancient synagogue of Kfar Bar'am in the Galilee

  • In Israel, archaeologists have uncovered many ruins of synagogues from 2000 years ago, including several that were in use before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. The ruins of the small synagogue at the top of Masada is one of the most well-documented; it dates from the time of the Second Temple.
  • One of the oldest synagogues currently in use is the Ari Ashkenazi Synagogue in Safed, which dates from the 16th century CE.
  • There are synagogues in Jerusalem located on the sites of far older synagogue buildings but, because the older buildings were destroyed by non-Jewish rulers of the city, the present buildings are reconstructions. The Karaite Synagogue in Jerusalem is the oldest of Jerusalem's active synagogues, having been built in the 8th century. It was destroyed by the Crusaders in 1099 and Jews were not allowed to live in the city for 50 years. In 1187 Saladin restored the site to the Karaite Jews who promptly rebuilt the synagogue. It has been active continuously since its foundation, except during the Crusades and Jordanian occupation of the city from 1948. In 1967, the Israeli government returned the synagogue to the Karaite community, who finished renovating it in 1982.

Jordan[]

  • In Jerash, Jordan, the remnants of a synagogue dating from Late Antiquity have been found.

Syria[]

  • The 2nd and 3rd century CE Dura-Europos synagogue is better preserved than other, older synagogues that have emerged from archaeological digs. It is often called the world's oldest preserved Jewish synagogue.
  • Jobar Synagogue, described as "2,000 years old."

Australia[]

  • The Hobart Synagogue (1845) is the oldest surviving synagogue building in Australia.
  • The Great Synagogue (Sydney) is the oldest congregation.

Europe[]

General[]

Praha Staronova Synagoga

Built around 1270, the Old New Synagogue in Prague (Czech Republic) is the world's oldest active synagogue.

  • The oldest synagogue in Europe uncovered in an archaeological dig to date is the Ostia Synagogue in the ancient Roman port of Ostia, in Italy. The present building, of which partial walls and pillars set upright by archaeologists remain, dates from the 4th century CE. However, excavation revealed that it is on the site of an earlier synagogue dating from the middle of the 1st century CE, that is, from before the destruction of the Temple.[5]
  • The Ancient Synagogue of Barcelona, built in the 3rd or 4th century, has been described as the oldest synagogue in Europe. It was used as a synagogue until the massacre of the Jews in Barcelona in 1391, then used for other purposes until it was rediscovered and restored in the 1990s.[6][7][8]
  • The Köln Synagogue in Cologne, Germany has been excavated 2007/2009 and dates clearly pre Carolingian (bef. 780/90). There is at the moment some strong evidence that it dates back to the early 4th century when emperor Constantine in 321 issued a privilege for the Cologne Jews.
  • The Erfurt Synagogue in Erfurt, Germany, which was built c. 1100, and is currently undergoing renovation, is thought by some experts to be the oldest synagogue building still standing in Europe.[9][10]
  • Santa María la Blanca, built in Toledo, Spain in 1190, has long been regarded as the oldest synagogue building in Europe still standing. It was consecrated as a church upon the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in the 15th century, but no major renovations were done. While still a consecrated church, it is no longer used for worship and is open as a museum.
  • The oldest active synagogue building in Europe is the Alteneu Shul (Old-New Synagogue) in Prague, Czech Republic, which dates from the 13th century (probably 1270). The Altneu Shul was the pulpit of the great Rabbi Yehuda Loew, (the Maharal), and his creation, the golem of Prague, is rumored to be hidden within the synagogue.
  • The Plymouth Synagogue, in Plymouth, England, is the oldest synagogue built by Ashkenazi Jews in the English speaking world.[11]

Czech Republic[]

  • The Alteneu Shul (Old-New Synagogue)(see above), in Prague, in the Czech Republic, which dates from the 13th century (probably 1270), is the oldest active synagogue building in Europe.

France[]

  • The Synagogue of Carpentras has been built in 1367. Today, only the underground parts (mikveh, bakery, butcher's) remain, as the synagogue was rebuilt in the 18th century.

Germany[]

  • The Köln Synagogue(see above), in Cologne, Germany, excavated in 2007/2009, dates from pre Carolingian (bef. 780/90 CE).
  • The Erfurt Synagogue (see above), in Erfurt, Germany, which was built c. 1100, is thought by some experts to be the oldest synagogue building still standing in Europe.

Greece[]

  • The Delos Synagogue (see above), a Samaritan synagogue on the island of Delos, Greece, is the oldest synagogue building yet uncovered by archaeologists anywhere in the World and dates from at 150 to 128 BCE, or earlier.
  • The Kahal Shalom Synagogue on Rhodes (1577) is the oldest surviving synagogue building in Greece.

Italy[]

  • The Ostia Synagogue, in the ancient Roman port of Ostia, is one of the oldest synagogue sites in Europe dating from the 1st Century.
  • The Bova Marina Synagogue site in Bova Marina, Calabria. This site was discovered 1983. The remains of this ancient synagogue has been dated to the 4th Century.[12]
  • The Scolanova Synagogue built around 1200 and seized by the Roman Catholic Church and converted into a church in 1380. In 2006 it was again rededicated as a synagogue.
  • The Ferrara Synagogue built in 1421. The last surviving synagogue in the Ferrara region of Italy.
  • The Spanish Synagogue (Venice) located in the Venetian Ghetto of Venice. Founded in the 1490's by Spanish Jews.
  • The Italian Synagogue (Venice) located in the Venetian Ghetto of Venice. Founded in 1575.
  • The Padua Synagogue located in Padua and built in 1584.
  • The Synagogue of Casale Monferrato built in 1595 in Piedmont.

Poland[]

קובץ:Inside old synagogue Krakow.JPG

Inside of the Old Synagogue (Krakow)

  • The fifteenth-century Old Synagogue (Kraków) is the oldest surviving synagogue building in Poland.

Romania[]

  • The 1671 Great Synagogue in Iaşi, is the oldest surviving synagogue in Romania.[13]

Spain[]

  • The Main Synagogue of Barcelona (see above), built in the 3rd or 4th century, has been described as the oldest synagogue in Europe.
  • Santa María la Blanca (see above), built in Toledo in 1190, has long been regarded as the oldest synagogue building in Europe still standing.
  • Synagogue of Córdoba, built in 1305, located in the Jewish Quarter of Córdoba

Slovenia[]

  • The Maribor Synagogue was built in the 14th century. It later served as a catholic church and as apartment house, but is today a museum.

Ukraine[]

  • Golden Rose Synagogue (Lviv), 1582, a standing ruin as of 2009

United Kingdom[]

תבנית:Main

  • Jew's Court, Lincoln is "probably the only standing medieval synagogue in England".
  • Bevis Marks Synagogue in London, built in 1701 is the oldest synagogue building in the United Kingdom still in use.
  • The Plymouth Synagogue (see above), is the oldest surviving Ashkenazi synagogue in continuous use in the English speaking world.
  • Garnethill Synagogue, built 1879-81, is the oldest synagogue in Scotland.

North America[]

General[]

  • The Touro Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island, is the oldest Jewish house of worship in North America that is still standing. It was built in 1759 for the Jeshuat Israel congregation, which was established in 1658.

Canada[]

תבנית:Main

  • The Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue of Montreal is the oldest congregation in Canada.
  • The 1863 building of Congregation Emanu-El (Victoria, British Columbia) may be the oldest synagogue building in Canada.

United States[]

תבנית:Main

  • Congregation Shearith Israel, 1654, is the oldest congregation in the United States, its present building dates from 1897.
  • Touro Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island, the building of which commenced in 1759, is the United States' oldest synagogue and began services in the current building in the year 1763; the congregation was founded in 1658. President Kennedy called Touro Synagogue "one of the oldest symbols of liberty".תבנית:Citation needed

South America and Caribbean[]

Recife, Brazil[]

קובץ:Sinagoga-kahal-zur-israel-recife.jpg

The Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue, located in Recife stands on the site of the earliest synagogue in the Americas.

  • The Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue in Recife, Brazil, erected in 1636, was the first synagogue erected in the Americas. Its foundations have been recently discovered, and the twentieth century buildings on the site have been altered to resemble a 17th century Dutch synagogue.

Barbados[]

  • Nidhe Israel Synagogue in Bridgetown, Barbados: one of the oldest Synagogues in the Americas, standing since 1654, restored and used by the Jewish community in Barbados to this day.


Argentina[]

Suriname[]

  • Wooden, later brick synagogue Beracha ve Shalom ("Blessings and Peace") at Jodensavanne, Suriname, built between 1665 and 1671. Destroyed in 1832, ruins still exist.
  • Neveh Shalom Synagogue, erection first completed in 1723 and rebuilt in 1842 or 1843, currently the only synagogue in use in Suriname.

Curaçao[]

  • The Curaçao synagogue, congregation Mikvé Israel-Emanuel, built in 1732.

Sint Eustatius[]

  • The Honen Dalim Synagogue, Oranjestad, Sint Eustatius, built in 1739, burned down by Admiral George Rodney after the capture of Sint Eustatius in 1781, partially restored in 2001.

הערות שוליים[]

  1. http://www.pohick.org/sts/egypt.html
  2. http://www.pohick.org/sts/delos.html
  3. ^ "The Oldest Original Synagogue Building in the Diaspora: The Delos Synagogue Reconsidered," Monika Trümper Hesperia, Vol. 73, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 2004), pp. 513-598
  4. Jericho
  5. Ostia
  6. Leviant, Curt; Erika Pfeifer Leviant (September 18, 2008). "Beautiful Barcelona and its Jews of today and long ago". New Jersey Jewish News. http://www.njjewishnews.com/njjn.com/091808/ltBarcelona.html. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  7. Katz, Marisa S. (September 14, 2006). "The Golden Age returns". The Jerusalem Post. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1157913627107&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull. Retrieved December 10, 2008. 
  8. "The Jewish Virtual History Tour: Barcelona". Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/barcelona.html. Retrieved December 8, 2008. 
  9. Archeologists Discover Medieval Jewish Bath in Erfurt, 12.04.2007, Deutsche Welle, [1]
  10. Treasures of the plague, Marian Campbell, Apollo Magazine, 31st August 2007 [2]
  11. "Synagogue, Catherine Street, Plymouth". English Heritage. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=473229. Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  12. www.nytimes.com
  13. Samuel Gruber's Jewish Art & Monuments, Romania: Iasi Synagogue in Restoration, May 31, 2010 [3]
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